A Linguistic History of Arabic (Oxford Linguistics) by Jonathan Owens

By Jonathan Owens

A Linguistic background of Arabic offers a reconstruction of proto-Arabic via the equipment of historical-comparative linguistics. It demanding situations the conventional conceptualization of an outdated, Classical language evolving into the modern Neo-Arabic dialects. Professor Owens combines validated comparative linguistic technique with a cautious interpreting of the classical Arabic resources, corresponding to the grammatical and exegetical traditions. He arrives at a richer and extra advanced photo of early Arabic language background than is present at the present time and in doing so establishes the root for a accomplished, linguistically-based figuring out of the heritage of Arabic. The arguments are set out in a concise, case through case foundation, making it available to scholars and students of Arabic and Islamic tradition, in addition to to these learning Arabic and ancient linguists.

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This describes a “task-based” view of language, where language use is meaningful only if and to the extent that it serves the accomplishment of some informational task, such as inquiring, informing, persuading, commanding, and so on. To explain metaphors is to explain how they establish truth conditions 20 introduction and contribute to accomplishing informational tasks. Theories discussed in Chapters 2 and 3 are based on an information transfer model of language. In later chapters I will discuss two other views of language, both of which are compatible with what Müller calls the “meaning construction” model.

G. the earth and an apple both have a core and a skin but share little else in common), participants preferred the simile form (‘the earth is like an apple’) over the equivalent metaphor (‘the earth is an apple’). Chiappe, Kennedy, and Smykowski (2003) tested the relationship between metaphors and similes by reversing topic–vehicle pairs. For example, the metaphor ‘crime is a disease’ and the simile version ‘crime is like a disease’ were reversed to produce ‘disease is a crime’ and ‘disease is like a crime’.

More prototypical meanings tend to be more salient, hence more readily accessed: lions are carnivores is likely to be more salient than lions spend most of the day sleeping. More recently accessed information is usually more salient than less recently accessed information. For a person who has recently visited a zoo or wild animal park on a hot afternoon, sleeping in the sun may be a more salient attribute of lion than carnivorous. Since neither carnivorous nor sleeping in the sun is relevant in the immediate context of the metaphor, ‘Achilles is a lion,’ both will become less strongly activated compared to other, more contextually relevant, attributes such as brave and fierce.

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