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A finished evaluate of the cutting-edge expertise at the moment on hand for neuronavigation. it is going to give you the reader with the scientific purposes of this expertise to numerous points of cranial and spinal surgical procedure.
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Extra resources for Advanced techniques in image-guided brain and spine surgery
Whereas point-based registration can be solved using any of several algorithms with closed-form solutions, the lack of exact point correspondence information causes surface-based registration algorithms to be based on iterative search. Most algorithms calculate approximate point correspondence information for the current transformation at each iteration of the search. 26 Typically one surface contains more information than the other. The surface from the image that covers the hMany variations of the cost (disparity) function are possible.
Phase encoding is another spatial encoding method. In this case, a linear magnetic field gradient is applied, but instead of being applied while the MR signal is received, it is applied momentarily just before the signal is received. , they possess both magnitude and phase). The briefly pulsed gradient alters the phase of the signal; the change in phase is proportional to distance. 5 Theoretically, there is no geometrical distortion due to static field inhomogeneity in the phase-encoding gradient direction.
The quantity TRE depends on the position of the target point. Generally TRE(r) is used to mean the registration error at a particular position r, and TRE is used to mean the registration error averaged over a set of target points or a volume of interest. Sometimes the subscript m is added (TREm) to denote that TRE was measured. The TRE using one registration method can be measured by using the transformation obtained using a different, and presumably more accurate, registration method as a reference gold standard.