Advances in X-Ray Analysis: Volume 15 by R. L. Heath (auth.), Kurt F. J. Heinrich, Charles S.

By R. L. Heath (auth.), Kurt F. J. Heinrich, Charles S. Barrett, John B. Newkirk, Clayton O. Ruud (eds.)

The software of solid-state detectors of excessive power answer to x-ray spectrometry, and the expanding use of compu­ ters in either size and information overview, are giving a brand new stimulus to x-ray suggestions in analytical chemistry. the 20 th Annual Denver X-ray convention displays this renewed curiosity in different methods. The invited papers, grouped in consultation I, evaluation the charac­ teristics of the detectors utilized in the size of x-rays. One paper is devoted to the detection of unmarried ions. even if one of these topic might seem to be marginal to the needs of the Denver convention, we needs to realize the affinity of suggestions utilized to comparable reasons. Ion probe mass spectrometry is devoted to projects just like these played through x-ray spectrometry with the electron probe microanalyzer. Scientists and technologists will see those concepts mentioned within the related conferences. The dialogue of automation and programming isn't restricted to the 2 invited audio system, yet extends to papers provided in additional than one consultation. the problem of fluorescence research by way of isotope- and tube-excitation can also be of significant curiosity to these enthusiastic about the sensible functions of x-ray ideas. The communications contained during this quantity, and the energetic discussions which regularly the presentation of papers, attest to the energy of the themes that are the fear of the once a year Denver X-ray Conference.

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54 L. A. Dietz ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to J. C. Sheffield and J. H. Thomas for construction of the secondary electron emission apparatus and to J. C. Sheffield for making the measurements of secondary electron yields. I also wish to thank J. F. Stevens for the ion microprobe scans of the dynode surfaces and others in the mass spectrometry group who helped prepare these surfaces. REFERENCES 1. F. A. White and T. L. Collins, "Po{:litive Ion Counting for Mass Spectrometer Beam Currents of 10-14 to 10-19 Ampere," Appl.

L. Heath, Nucl. Instr. and Methods 43, 209 (1966). 10. R. G. Helmer, R. L. Heath, M. Putnam and D. H. Gipson, Nucl. Instr. and Methods 22, 46 (1969). 11. R. Gunnink and J. B. Niday, in Modern Trends in Activation Analysis (Proc. Int. Conf. Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1968: J. R. ,' 1244 (1969). 12. H. P. Yule, Nucl. Instr. and Methods 54, 61 (1967). 13. A. L. Connelly and W. W. Black, Nucl. Instr. and Methods §l, 141 (1970). 14. A. Lubecki, J. Radioanal. Chern. 1, 3 (1969). 15. W. J. Campbell, Anal.

Ka lKg. }Pr C. K', a. ~. :~ . , :~ ,:::-:. C, L I. Th L X- Roys : ~::,:: ! C. ,1 \ , / . "! ~ ~. " ' '''. Go Pr and Nd ..... :. 20 00 o 10 I 10 2 3 10 It 10 5 10 10 6 10 . Fig. 12. Pulse-height spectrum of x-rays from Monazite ore sample excited with 241Am isotopic source. ::> 0 u Z III .... u .. c :z: Z Z w oJ • 10 I-' (0 I ~ r' 20 R. Heath x-rays of thorium and the K-series x-rays of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium and neodymium. Also indicated in the spectrum are two peaks at the upper end which represent photons from the exciting source which have been scattered into the detector.

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